of the International Hop Growers´ Convention
Canterbury, England-UK, 5-8 August 2001
Registration, Accomodation, Costs
Minutes of the Lecture Part
Minutes Administrative Meeting
Registration fee : £ 145 = (approx. US $ 209 = DM 465.-)
(these costs will cover from Saturday evening to the Wednesday morning):
Venue: Keynes College, University of Kent at Canterbury, England
Date: 4 8 August 2001
Accommodation: at the University of Kent, Canterbury
Single room per night (incl. breakfast) £27 (= US$ 39 = DM 88.-)
Double room per night (incl. breakfast) £49 (= US$ 75 = DM 157.-)
(please note: if partners wish to join the Scientific Commission for any meals,
excluding breakfast, additional costs will be incurred).
All payments (Registration and Accommodation) must be in Stirling and paid
in advance of arrival. No accommodation or meals will be available to those not
registering before 4 August 2001.
Saturday 4 August, 2001:
Arrive: registration, evening meal
Sunday, 5 August, 2001:
Morning: registration, free to attend church/Cathedral services, lunch.
Afternoon: 2 concurrent sessions on pesticides or genetics.
Evening: meal, administrative meeting.
Monday, 6 August, 2001:
Morning: lectures, lunch.
Afternoon: coach visit to Wye breeding plots.
Evening: formal dinner.
Tuesday, 7 August, 2001:
Morning: coach to Cathedral for Technical Commission of IHGC and lunch.
Afternoon: final lecture session back at UKC.
Evening: Social evening joining main IHGC congress.
Wednesday, 8 August, 2001:
Options to join the IHGC main congress:
Those wishing to stay on to the main congress have the option to pay
an additional registration charge (also in advance) of £180 which will include
transport from/to UKC and the main congress. Accommodation will continue
to be available at UKC at £27 / £49 per night.
Wednesdy, 8 August, 2001: All-day trip to hop processing, fruit research, brewery.
Thursday, 9 August, 2001: General assembly, lunch, afternoon free, evening
dinner-dance at Leeds Castle
Friday, 10 August, 2001: Depart
Note: Delegates attending the Scientific Commission will be unable to attend the
IHGC main congress Civic Reception (Monday evening) or the Economic Commission
and Cathedral Service (Tuesday afternoon).
In addition, the IHGC main congress will offer
i) a Ladies/Partners Tour during Tuesday morning and afternoon at an additional cost
of approx. £40.
ii) a post-conference tour of Oxford including Friday and (if required) Saturday night
at an additional cost of approx. £150 per night.
Details for the arrangements for paying the registration and accommodation costs will
be sent after the registration form has been returned.
Bernhard Engelhard, Chairman
Dr. Peter.Darby, Vice Chairman
Dr. Elisabeth Seigner, Secretary
Minutes of the Lecture Part
61 scientists from 16 different countries met in Canterbury, England, 5-7 August 2001 to discuss latest results in hop research, to exchange experience and to bring home innovative ideas. In 24 papers and 13 posters scientists presented their work covering the following topics:
Hop protection and harmonization
Gene-based methods in hop research
Hop diseases and pests latest reports
Hop quality and chemistry
Session I: Plant Protection and efforts to harmonization
Recent efforts to harmonize international hop chemical residue standards and to coordinate research activities in testing and in the approval of new pesticides between Europe and the USA were reviewed and new aggressive strategies to proceed were shown. The IR 4 project which has been very successful in the USA now also tries to assist growers across the US borders e.g. German growers in obtaining registration of agricultural pesticides for minor crops such as hops. Investigations to determine the efficacy of Fosetyl-Al (Aliette) to control downy mildew also help to support farmers in making their decisions for a reasonable application of pesticides.
Session II: New gene based techniques in hop research
New perspectives in breeding are opened up by genetic engineering: In Japan, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Portugal and in Germany research activities are focused to establish basic techniques which are crucial to improve hop quality and resistance via gene transfer. Efficient protocols for transformation and regeneration are needed as well as suitable genes which control key pathways of aroma and bitter compounds or which confer fungal resistance.
In the genome analytical field there are numerous efforts to explore the genetic makeup of hops using PCR-based methods. In developing high throughput techniques for microsatellites a very efficient new marker system is provided in hops which can be used to address various genetic issues. At current research is focused on the detection of DNA markers closely linked to disease and pest resistance. The genetic fingerprint is applied in many ways: for the characterization of hops and for the detection of variability, but also for the identification of pathogenic fungi.
Session III: Diseases and pests
Hop powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca humuli Burr.) has become a serious problem in producing quality hops in almost all hop growing regions of Europe and the USA. In order to assess the infection potential of S. humuli populations occurring in various hop growing regions virulence analyses have been conducted. In this way also the effectiveness of resistance genes utilized in breeding could be evaluated. In addition, a risk infection forecasting index has been developed using weather data in an effort to develop economical control measures for the management of hop powdery mildew. Besides powdery mildew other fungi also cause damage on hops. In Poland and the USA Fusarium species have been observed in connection with cone tip blight and root rot. In Slovenia since 1998 drastic damage has been caused by the progressive form of Verticillium wilt. Only strict quarantine conditions can prevent further spread of this disease.
The impact of virus and viroid infection on yield and brewing quality has been investigated in various hop varieties in more details. It became obvious that damage strongly depends on the genotype.
In order to reduce the application of pesticides and acaracides, various options of biological plant protection are being tested. Natural enemies - Typhlodromus pyri and Phytoseiulus against the two spotted red spider mite and specific ladybirds against Damson hop aphid are deployed. This biological control in combination with integrated pest management using pesticides that do not harm the beneficial fauna is a promising concept for the future. A new perspective of non-pesticidal control of damson-hop aphid is opened up by an English aphid resistant genotype.
Part of an integrated strategy to control red spider mite is a new developed threshold system for Tetranychus urticae with allows to drastically reduce the application of acaracides.
Session IV: Hop breeding
In breeding the objectives are directed to meet the demands of the market, of growers and brewers. Main emphasis in new varieties is put on aroma and bitter quality with high to very high a -acid contents, low cohumulone content combined with high yield and good disease resistance. Traits based on single genes are increasingly important, especially as first targets for new breeding techniques and approaches. Well characterized breeding populations are a prerequisite for the identification of molecular markers closely linked to specific characters which paves the way for marker assisted selection.
In China only recently large scale commercial growing of hops has started with cv. Tsing Tao being grown on 90% of the total hop acreage. Growing of hops on low trellis systems showed advantages in several aspects. In the Czech Republic in contrast to the former clonal selection nowadays crossbreeding is performed. Studies on the heredity of important traits should provide insight into the options to improve features via cross breeding. In New Zealand and Australia development of seedless triploid cultivars is first priority. Tetraploid parents - spontaneous sexually derived tetraploids or after the application of colchicines - are a prerequisite in this procedure to obtain triploids. To verify tetraploids from seedling populations flow cytometry proved to be a fast and reliable method for chromosome counting. Interesting differences have become evident in the ploidy level of various tissues of an individual plant following colchicine treatment.
In South Africa the objective are clearly fixed: development of aroma and super alpha hops adapted to the Southern hemisphere and also dual varieties combining aroma and bitter quality. Low cohumulone breeding lines will be integrated in new breeding programmes.
Session IV: HOP CHEMISTRY AND QUALITY
Applying the SPME (solid phase microextraction) a second procedure besides steam destillation is now available for the analysis of essential oils. The system has been optimized. Despite significantly different ways in preparing the hop samples for both extraction procedures data obtained after GC (gas chromatographic) analysis were comparable, even when evaluated by using the Min-Max model of essential oils - a model which is well established for the identification of varieties and for the assessment of hop aroma quality.
Hop is harvested at its technical ripeness. Now investigations clearly revealed significant differences in compounds essential in brewing when hop cones are harvested at the physiological and technical ripeness respectively.
The content of auxin in its free or conjugated form has been determined in various tissues of different hop varieties using the HPLC and GC mass spectroscopy. Auxin as phytohormone regulates various developmental processes and among other things also cell division. These studies should give insight which form of the auxin is prevailing in fast growing tissue and varieties.
All papers and posters presented clearly demonstrated that all hop research institutes and joint universities are working with great commitment and that their results are very promising. The work of the Scientific Commission is the basis for the development of new hop varieties and of new environmentally-beneficial and cost-effective production techniques. Thus this research increases the international competitiveness of hop growers and brewers.
Dr. Elisabeth Seigner -Secretary, Scientific Commission, IHGC
Minutes Administrative Meeting
of the Scientific Commission of the International Hop Growers´ Convention,
Canterbury, 5 August 2001
Chairing: Dr. Elisabeth Seigner, Time: 5 August 2001, 11.00 12.00
After a short welcome to all participants by Dr Peter Darby, 2. chairman of the Scientific Commission and by the secretary, Dr Elisabeth Seigner thanked Dr Darby for all his efforts in organizing this meeting. Attending the meeting of the SC for the first time the delegations of China and the Ukraine were invited to introduce themselves. Afterwards Dr Seigner proceeded to the agenda.
Ad 2 and 3)
Slovenia has been confirmed as venue of the next meeting of the Scientific Commission in 2003 and Mr Andrej Simoncic, head of the hop research institute at Zalec, accepted his election as second chairman of the Scientific Commission. His task will be to organize the next meeting of the Scientific Commission.
Proposals for the award of the Hop order for the 1. rank (knight) and 2. rank (officer) should be sent to the secretary of the Scientific Commission till 30 November 2001. She will forward all proposals to the IHGC.
Ad 5) Any other business
5.1 Meeting of the SC and the main congress not at the same place and time
For the first time the meeting of the Scientific Commission and Main Congress were held together at the same place and time. But in practice it clearly showed that it had been a failure and from an organization point of view there were too many difficulties, especially for Dr Darby. In order to prevent any confusions of the participants, in future the Scientific Commission should insist on having their conference at a different place or at least at different times from the Main Congress.
5.2 Payment of registration fees
Dr Peter Darby explained that due to the late cancellation of several participants before the meeting this year the SC has to face financial losses. A lot of arrangements (accommodation, meals, transport etc.) had to be booked and paid in advance, therefore delayed canceling incurred costs for those participants which had to be paid by themselves.
Dr Darby also made it quite clear that institutes or individuals that do not pay their accounts (fees/ accommodation) will be excluded from future meetings.
In addition, three different options were discussed to prevent in future financial losses for the SC associated with late cancellation:
After a short discussion the 3. proposal was fully agreed. According to this proposal the total sum of the registration fee should be paid to the bank account of the organizers at least 3 months before the meeting. If it comes to cancellation after this final date 50% of the total amount is not refundable. Canceling 10 days before the meeting means no reimbursement of the total amount.
5.3 Early application for a visa
Those persons needing a visa for traveling into the host country should apply for their visa in good time. Cancellation due to the missing of a visa will incur costs which have to be borne by the participant (see 5.2). The organizers will provide their help by offering official letters of invitation, if requested.
5.4 Personal responsibility for booking the accommodation
In future the accommodation is no more booked by the organizers. Each participant gets a list of all hotels recommended by the SC and thus the participant can reserve his own hotel room. Each participant is responsible for paying his accommodation.
5.5 Registration fee
In future there will be a fixed registration fee for all participants. In this way it does not matter whether the participant leaves the meeting earlier or not.
5.6 Proceedings via internet
All scientific contributions (papers and posters) will be put into the internet in advance, so each participant can load down and print all papers and posters he is interested in. In this way there will be no costs for the printing and mailing of the copies of the Proceedings and moreover, this means less time of work for the secretary.
5.7 Posters and papers of this meeting available via internet
Also this time all papers and posters will be available via internet from November or December 2001 on. All participants who have presented a poster in Canterbury are asked to send their contribution to the secretary till November at the latest. All contributions will be available on three different websites:
5.8 South Africa proposed as venue for the meeting in 2005
South Africa has been proposed as venue for the meeting of the SC in 2005. Taking into account the vegetation period in the Southern hemisphere the date of the meeting would be around March 2005. Mr Brits proposal was met with general approval.
In closing, the secretary thanked all those who supported her in her preparations for the meeting by trying to meet final dates (for registration, replies etc.). After having discussed all items on the agenda, the secretary thanked all participants and closed the business meeting.
Dr. Elisabeth Seigner - Secretary, Scientific Commission, IHGC